Learn more about the Natural, Harmonic and Melodic minor piano scale patterns, and how they're different from the major scale.
The natural minor scale, also called Aeolian mode, can easily be found on the white keys on the piano by starting from the note A.
The natural minor piano scale pattern is "ready" in A minor, see it here:
Starting from A, the pattern for a natural minor scale is (W=whole step, H= half step):
W - H - W - W - H - W - W
If you start from another note you'll have to keep the exact pattern of whole and half steps between the keys by adding the necessary sharps or flats.
There are two more variations of the minor pattern. One is called harmonic minor and the other is called melodic minor.
You could say that they're actually the same basic pattern as the natural minor - just alternating the intervals at the 6th and the 7th steps.
In harmonic minor the 7th step is raised 1/2 step higher, both going up (ascending) and down (descending):
In melodic minor the 6th and the 7th step is raised 1/2 step when the minor piano scale is played going up (ascending), but when it goes down again (descending) it lowers them, or simply; it becomes natural again.
Now why confusing things like that?
Why isn't there just one minor scale pattern as there is only one major scale pattern?
In the western "classical" music- up to approximately the 1600's - it was common to use the 7 musical modes. Two of those modes; the Ionian and the Aeolian, are what we now call major and natural minor.
During the Baroque and Classical era it became more and more popular to use mainly major and minor tonalities.
Simplicity! Clarity! This was
the beginning of the Age of Enlightenment after all!
No more confusing harmonies and modes used in the Renaissance, with complicated Polyphony (many "melodies" interwoven) and stuff.
Homophony (melody and accompaniment by chords) was all the rage!
Music should be either happy or sad- nothing in between- and simpler clear melodies with accompaniment; not four or five equal melodies weaving around each other.
How else was people supposed to know what to sing along with? :)
Even J. S. Bach with his (marvelous!) fugues (polyphonic) was considered by many contemporaries to be a really old fashioned Big Wig.
Out with the old- in with the new! The new invention of the Opera surely had something to do with the popularity of major and minor modes as well: People had to know when to laugh and when to cry! :)
But combining the older melodies made from the "church" modes with minor chords, just didn't sound so good.
So, altering the 7th step and even the 6th sometimes, was a compromise to solve the dilemma when adding harmonies (chords) to the melodies.
This is where the name "harmonic" minor comes from. The minor scale used to harmonize the melodies.
And by raising the 7th step in a minor scale you also get this feeling of a really strong pull back to the first (or last) note - in this way you get a stronger sense of tonality- or a tonal center.
So, the minor scale is quite interesting in that it has a lot more "flexibility" than the major scale.